Defining Jesus (15 Old Testament Names of God)

There have always been doubters as to whether or not Jesus is God. A quick look at the Old Testament names of God, and the New Testament revelation of Jesus Christ, will prove that Jesus is LORD.


I. Elohim
The plural form of EL, meaning “strong one.” Sometimes used of false gods, but when used of the true God, it is a plural of majesty and intimates the trinity (Isa. 54:5; Jer. 32:27; Gen. 1:1; Isa. 45:18; Deut. 5:23; 8:15; Ps. 68:7).

John 10:30 I and my Father are one. (Jesus is God the Son. The second person of the Holy Trinity)

II. El Shaddai
“God Almighty.” It stresses God’s loving provision and comfort, and also His power as the Almighty who corrects those He loves. (Gen. 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; Ex. 6:1; Ps. 91:1, 2).

Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.  (Jesus is God almighty who sends us out, and who remains with us, so that we can accomplish that which He has sent us to do.)

III. El Elyon
“The Most High God.” It stresses God’s strength, and supremacy (Gen. 14:19; Ps. 9:2; Dan. 7:18, 22, 25).

Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. (Jesus is the Most High God who has all power and authority to rule over all of creation.)

IV. El Olam
God’s wisdom, and merciful and gracious nature (e.g., Exod 34:6; Psa 103:8; Deut 4:31).

John 8:7 So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. (Jesus is wise he is able to convict the hearts of the self-righteous with His words, and He is merciful forgiving the sins of the guilty.)

V. Yahweh (YHWH)
Comes from a verb which means “to exist, be.” This, plus its usage, shows that this name stresses God as the independent and self-existent God of revelation and redemption (Gen. 4:3; Ex. 6:3 (cf. 3:14); 3:12).

John 1:1-3 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.The same was in the beginning with God.All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made that was made. (Jesus has always been, and will always be. He is the eternal God who has revealed Himself unto us.)

VI. Yahweh Jireh (Yireh)
 “The Lord will provide.” Stresses God’s provision for His people (Gen. 22:14).

John 4:13 And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. (Jesus has provided all that we will ever need for life on this earth, and for eternity in Heaven. It is all ours for the asking.)

VII. Yahweh Nissi
“The Lord is my Banner.” Stresses that God is our rallying point and our means of victory; the one who fights for His people (Ex. 17:15).

John 16:33 These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world. (The victory is won! We are here to proclaim the good news of Jesus Christ to every nation, tribe and tongue. The battles that remain can only be lost by those who attempt to win them in their own strength.)

VIII. Yahweh Shalom
“The Lord is Peace.” Points to the Lord as the means of our peace and rest (Jud. 6:24).

John 14:27 Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid. (Jesus is the Lord of our peace.  We have no reason to be anxious.)

IX. Yahweh Sabbaoth
“The Lord of Hosts.” A military figure portraying the Lord as the commander of the armies of heaven (1 Sam. 1:3; 17:45).

2 Thessalonians 1:6-9 Seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you; And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power (Jesus is the Lord of Hosts, and He will return in power and in glory!)

X. Yahweh Maccaddeshem
“The Lord your Sanctifier.” Portrays the Lord as our means of sanctification or as the one who sets believers apart for His purposes (Ex. 31:13).

Hebrews 10:10 By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. (Jesus is the Lord our Sanctifier! It is Jesus alone that makes us holy before His Father.)

XI. Yahweh Ro’i “The Lord my Shepherd.” Portrays the Lord as the Shepherd who cares for His people as a shepherd cares for the sheep of his pasture (Ps. 23:1).

John 10:14 I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine. (Jesus is our shepherd, and those who know and trust Him shall not want for anything.)

XII. Yahweh Tsidkenu
“The Lord our Righteousness.” Portrays the Lord as the means of our righteousness (Jer. 23:6).

2 Corinthians 5:21 21 For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. (We are not only sanctified in Jesus we are also made righteous through His sacrifice.)

XIII. Yahweh Shammah
 “The Lord is there.” Portrays the Lord’s personal presence in the millennial kingdom (Ezek. 48:35).

Revelation 22:12 12 And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be (Jesus will return to rule over the earth.)

XIV. Yahweh Elohim Israel
 “The Lord, the God of Israel.” Identifies Yahweh as the God of Israel in contrast to the false gods of the nations (Jud. 5:3.; Isa. 17:6).

1 Peter 1:18-21 18 Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers;19 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:20 Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you, 21 Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God. (Jesus is the Lord God of Israel. He does not change.)

XV. Adonai
Like Elohim, this too is a plural of majesty. The singular form means “master, owner.” Stresses man’s relationship to God as his master, authority, and provider (Gen. 18:2; 40:1; 1 Sam. 1:15; Ex. 21:1-6; Josh. 5:14).

1 Corinthians 7:22 For he that is called in the Lord, being a servant, is the Lord’s freeman: likewise also he that is called, being free, is Christ’s servant. (Like His brother James, everyone who calls on the name of Jesus should proudly boast that we are slaves to His work.)

If you are familure with any of the other Old Testament names of God, I would love to hear how you can relate them to the person of Jesus Christ as He is revealed in the New Testament.



(Old Testament list of the names of God and definitions are from some edits were made for the purpose of this study see the original list here >>

(All scriptures are from the KJV.  Commentary in parentheses is mine.)

(Picture by Robert Mitchell)

About robertkennedymitchell

Christian. Husband. Dad. Pastor.
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